In their research Christoffels and Baaij have come to the conclusion that there is a strong relationship between low literacy and poverty. People low in literacy have on average a substantial lower income. One in five have suffered for a period for over 1 year in which their income level was below the poverty boarder. They in general are not significant more unemployed, but they have jobs of lower status. They have a three times higher risk of living on welfare system for some period of time. Also they are socially less included in the society and they have a 3 times higher chance of also being digital incompetent.